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The Strong Start to Finish approach is based on a large body of scholarly documents and educational research.

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The system still lacks equity for students of color.* Low-income and first-generation students are placed in developmental education more often than their peers.

U.S. Department of Education (2017) “Developmental Education Challenges and Strategies for Reform

*Strong Start to Finish sought out data about American Indian, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander students in developmental education, but found that disaggregated national student-level data on this important student populations is not currently available.

Reforms are guided by evidence-based design principles.

Complete College America (2017) “Corequisite Remediation: Spanning the Completion Divide

Why a Strong Start?

When students get off to a strong start in their first year of college, nearly 70 percent frequently pass math and English in one semester.

Complete College America (2017) “Corequisite Remediation: Spanning the Completion Divide

The Tennessee Board of Regents (2016) “Tennessee Board of Regents Co-Requisite Remediation Model Produces Giant Leaps in Student Success in Math and English

More than 50 percent of students attending two-year institutions and 33 percent of students attending four-year colleges are placed in ineffective developmental courses.

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (2016) “Student Success: Remedial Education

Most students placed in developmental education accrue large amounts of student debt and seldom move on to credit-earning courses.

U.S. Department of Education (2017) “Developmental Education Challenges and Strategies for Reform

The Core Principles

The co-authors of the Core Principles include:

Achieving the Dream
American Association of Community Colleges
The Charles A. Dana Center
Complete College America
Education Commission of the States
Jobs for the Future

 

Principle 1: Identify academic direction and supports.

Sources

Altstadt, D., Schmidt, G., & Couturier, L. (2014). “Driving the Direction of Transfer Pathways Reform.” Jobs for the Future.

Bailey, T., Jaggars, S.S., & Jenkins, D. (2015). “Redesigning America’s Community Colleges: A Clearer Path to Student Success.” Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Jenkins, D., & Cho, S. (2012). “Get With the Program: Accelerating Community College Students’ Entry Into and Completion of Programs of Study.” (CCRC Working Paper No. 32). New York, NY: Columbia University, Teachers College, Community College Research Center.

Implementation Guides

Achieving the Dream. Integrated Planning and Advising for Student Success (iPASS initiative).

Association of Public & Land-Grant Universities. A SMART Approach to Student Success.

Austin Community College. Orientation for all First-Time-at-ACC students.

Northwest Vista College. Math Paths. Tree of Math.

Northwest Vista College. Math Paths. STEM-B Road Map.

Northwest Vista College. Math Paths. Non-STEM Road Map.

Principle 2: Enroll in college-level math and English.

Sources

Ambrose, S., Bridges, M., Lovett, M., DiPietro, M., & Norman, M. (2010). How Learning Works: Seven Research-Based Principles for Smart Teaching. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass.

Bailey, T., Jeong, D.W., & Cho, S.W. (2010). “Referral, Enrollment, and Completion in Developmental Education Sequences in Community Colleges.” Economics of Education Review, 29, 255–270.

City University of New York. "Randomized Controlled Study – Mainstreaming into College Statistics."

Grubb, W.N., & Gabriner, R. (2013). Basic Skills Education in Community Colleges: Inside and Outside of Classrooms. Routledge.

Jenkins, D., & Cho, S. (2012). “Get With the Program: Accelerating Community College Students’ Entry Into and Completion of Programs of Study.” (CCRC Working Paper No. 32). New York, NY: Columbia University, Teachers College, Community College Research Center.

Perin, D. (2011). “Facilitating Student Learning Through Contextualization: Assessment of Evidence Series.” Community College Review, 268–295.

Scott-Clayton, J., Crosta, P.M., & Belfield, C.R. (2014). “Improving the Targeting of Treatment: Evidence from College Remediation.” Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 36(3), 371–393.

U.S. Department of Education (2014). “Profile of Undergraduate Students: 2011-12." (NCES 2015–167). Washington, DC: NCES.

Vandal, B. (2014). “Assessment and Placement: Supporting Student Success in College Gateway Courses.” Complete College America.

Zeidenberg, M., Cho, S., & Jenkins, D. (2010). “Washington State’s Integrated Basic Education and Skills Training Program (I-BEST): New Evidence of Effectiveness.” (CCRC Working Paper No. 20). New York, NY: Columbia University, Teachers College, Community College Research Center.

Implementation Guides

Long Beach City College. Promise Pathways.

Virginia Community College System. The Virginia Placement Test: A Pathways Approach to Math Placement.

Principle 3: Provide supports.

Sources

Austin Peay State University (APSU), Tennessee. "Developmental Studies Redesign Initiative."

Denley, T. (2015). “Co-Requisite Remediation Pilot Study Fall 2014 – Spring 2015.” Tennessee Board of Regents.

Denley, T. (2016). "Co-Requisite Study – Full Implementation 2015-2016." Tennessee Board of Regents.

Estrem, H., Shepherd, D., & Sturman, S. (2014). “The Write Class: Engaging Students in the Course Matching Process.” Boise State University.

Grubb, W.N., & Gabriner, R. (2013). Basic Skills Education in Community Colleges: Inside and Outside of Classrooms. Routledge.

Rodríguez, O. (2014). “Increasing Access to College-Level Math: Early Outcomes Using the Virginia Placement Test.” (CCRC Brief No. 58). New York, NY: Columbia University, Teachers College, Community College Research Center.

Vandal, B. (2014). “Promoting Gateway Course Success: Scaling Corequisite Academic Support.” Complete College America.

Zeidenberg, M., Jenkins, D., & Scott, M. (2012). “Not Just Math and English: Courses That Pose Obstacles to Community College Completion.” (CCRC Working Paper No. 52). New York, NY: Columbia University, Teachers College, Community College Research Center.

Implementation Guides

Charles A. Dana Center and Roane State Community College. Introduction to Statistics and Co-Requisite Support Course Sample Timeline.

Complete College America. Corequisite Remediation – Blueprint.

University System of Georgia. Transforming College Mathematics.

Principle 4: Streamline remediation options.

Sources

Anderson, T., Eyster, L., Lerman, R., & O’Brien, C. (2015). “The Second Year of Accelerating Opportunity: Implementation Findings from the States and Colleges.” Washington: The Urban Institute.

Cho, S., Kopko, E., Jenkins, D., & Jaggars, S.S. (2012). “New Evidence of Success for Community College Remedial English Students: Tracking the Outcomes of Students in the Accelerated Learning Program (ALP).” (CCRC Working Paper No. 58). New York, NY: Columbia University, Teachers College, Community College Research Center.

Crisp, G., & Delgado, C. (2014). “The Impact of Developmental Education on Community College Persistence and Vertical Transfer.” Community College Review, 42(2), 99–117.

EdTech Leaders. (July, 2012). “Models of Contextualization in Developmental and Adult Basic Education.

Jaggars, S.S., Hodara, M., Cho, S., & Xu, D. (2015). “Three Accelerated Developmental Education Programs: Features, Student Outcomes, and Implications.” Community College Review, 43(1), 3–26.

Jobs for the Future. “These People Just Keep Trying to Help Me.” Supporting Students to Succeed in College and Career Pathways.

Spaulding, S., Lerman, R.I., Holzer, H. J., & Eyster, L. (2015). “Expanding Economic Opportunity for Young Men and Boys of Color Through Employment and Training.” Urban Institute.

Zeidenberg, M., Cho, S., & Jenkins, D. (2010). “Washington State’s Integrated Basic Education and Skills Training Program (I-BEST): New Evidence of Effectiveness.” (CCRC Working Paper No. 20). New York, NY: Columbia University, Teachers College, Community College Research Center.

Implementation Guides

Charles A. Dana Center. Mathematics Pathways. Classroom Level – Planning & Implementing. Pathway Curricular Resources – Underprepared Students.

Principle 5: Align courses with programs of study.

Sources

Advancing Mathematics Pathways for Student Success. "About Mathematics Pathways."

Burdman, P. (2013). “Changing Equations: How Community Colleges are Re-Thinking College Readiness in Math.” Oakland, CA: LearningWorks.

Burdman, P. (2015). “Degrees of Freedom: Diversifying Math Requirements for College Readiness and Graduation.” Oakland, CA: LearningWorks.

Burdman, P. (2015). “Degrees of Freedom: Probing Math Placement Policies at California Colleges and Universities.” Oakland, CA: LearningWorks.

Burdman, P. (2015). “Degrees of Freedom: Varying Routes to Math Readiness and the Challenge of Intersegmental Alignment.” Oakland, CA: LearningWorks.

California Acceleration Project. (August 2015). “Acceleration Strategies That Produce Powerful Results: A Planning Resource for Community Colleges.

Complete College America. (December, 2014). “Four-Year College Myth: Make College More Affordable.

Couturier, L., & Cullinane, J. (2015). “A Call to Action to Improve Math Placement Policies and Processes.” Achieving the Dream; Jobs for the Future; The Charles A. Dana Center.

Clyburn, G.M. (September/October 2013). “Improving on the American Dream: Mathematics Pathways to Student Success.” Change, 15–23.

Hayward, C., & Willett, T. (2014). “Curricular Design and Gatekeeper Completion: A Multi-College Evaluation of the California Acceleration Project.” The Research & Planning Group for California Community Colleges.

Jenkins, D., & Fink, J. (January, 2015). “What We Know About Transfer.” New York, NY: Columbia University, Teachers College, Community College Research Center.

Kazis, R., & Cullinane, J. (2015). “Modernizing Mathematics Pathways at Texas Universities: Insights from the New Mathways Project Transfer Champions.” Austin, TX: The Charles A. Dana Center at The University of Texas at Austin.

Logue, A.W., & Watanabe-Rose, M. (September, 2014). “Mainstreaming Remedial Mathematics Students in Introductory Statistics: Results Using a Randomized Controlled Trial.” Paper presented at the Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness.

Mathematics Association of America. "CUPM Curriculum Guide 2014."

Monaghan, D.B., & Attewell, P. (2014). “The Community College Route to the Bachelor’s Degree.” Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 1–22.

Transforming Post-Secondary Education in Mathematics. "Forum – Lower-Division Pathways."

Yamada, H. (2014). “Community College Pathways’ Program Success: Assessing the First Two Years’ Effectiveness of Statway.” Stanford, CA: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.

Zachry-Rutschow, E., & Diamond, J. (2015). “Laying the Foundations: Early Findings from the New Mathways Project.” New York, NY: MDRC.

Implementation Guides

American Association of Community Colleges Pathways Project. Guided Pathways: Planning, Implementation, Evaluation.

Charles A. Dana Center. Mathematics Pathways. Guide to Aligning Mathematics Pathways to Programs of Study.

Charles A. Dana Center. Mathematics Pathways. Implementation Guide.

Community College Research Center. Implementing Guided Pathways: Early Insights From the AACC Pathways Colleges.

Principle 6: Use data effectively.

Sources

Fletcher, J. & Karp, M. (2015). “Using Technology to Reform Advising: Insights from Colleges.” CCRC Lessons-From-Research Guide. New York, NY: Columbia University, Teachers College, Community College Research Center.

Garcia, J., Huckaby, H., Morgan, J., & Jones, S. (July, 2015). “Corequisite Remediation.” Complete College America. Presented at the annual meeting of State Higher Education Executive Officers Association, Santa Fe, NM.

Yeado, J., Haycock, K., Johnstone, R., & Chaplot, P. (2014). “Learning from High-Performing and Fast-Gaining Institutions.” Washington, DC: The Education Trust.

Implementation Guides

Arizona State University. Pathway Tracker.

Georgia State University. GPS Advising.

University of Georgia. DegreeWorks.

Collaboration with K12 Systems, Workforce Programs and Adult Basic Education Programs

Sources

Education First and the State Higher Education Executive Officers. (July 2015). “K–12/Higher Education Alignment: An Action Agenda for Increasing Student Success (six briefs).”

Fulton, M., Gianneschi, M., Blanco, C., & DeMaria, P. (2014). “Developmental Strategies for College Readiness and Success.” Denver: Education Commission of the States.”

Jobs for the Future. "A Resource Guide to Engaging Employers."

Jobs for the Future. "Co-Design, Co-Delivery, and Co-Validation: Creating High School and College Partnerships to Increase Postsecondary Success."

Jobs for the Future. "New Evidence on Integrated Career Pathways: Final Impact Report for Accelerating Opportunity."

Jobs for the Future. "Transformational Teaching: A Team "Approach.

National Conference of State Legislatures. "K12, College, and the Workforce: Collaborating to Prepare for Jobs of the Future."

Implementation Guides

The Charles A. Dana Center and Ivy Tech Community College. What Students Need to Know: Mathematics Concept Inventories for Community College Workforce Education Programs.

A Commitment to Implement the Principles – at Scale

Sources

Achieving the Dream and Jobs for the Future. "Innovation at Scale: How Virginia Community College Are Collaborating to Improve Developmental Education and Increase Student Success."

Achieving the Dream and Jobs for the Future. Moving Forward: "Strengthening Your State’s Capacity to Bring Innovation to Scale."

Charles A. Dana Center. Mathematics Pathways. "Implementing the DCMP at Temple College: A Case Study of Intra-Institutional Scale in Action."

Charles A. Dana Center. Mathematics Pathways. "Scaling Math Pathways: Key Resources for Colleges."

Implementation Guides

Community College Research Center. Guided Pathways Essential Practices: Scale of Adoption Self-Assessment.

Charles A. Dana Center. Mathematics Pathways. Setting A Vision for Scale: A Thought Experiment.

Charles A. Dana Center. Mathematics Pathways. Setting Goals for Scale: A Thought Experiment.

Charles A. Dana Center. Mathematics Pathways. Institutional Scaling Toolkit.

Jobs for the Future. DesignForScale Toolkit for States.